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By-Laws of the IOCV



By-Laws of the IOCV


The original Bylaws were prepared by the constitution and Bylaws committee in 1967:

J. M. Bove, V. Rossetti, E. C. Calavan, L. G. Weathers, E. O. Olson and J. M. Wallace, Chairperson

Adopted by membership vote: September 1, 1967

Amended by vote of delegates present at business session of the 5th Conference of IOCV, November 8, 1969, at Hiroshima, Japan.

Amended by vote of delegates present at the business session of the 7th Conference of IOCV October 3, 1975 at Athens, Greece.

Amended on November 12, 2001 by the Bylaws committee consisting of:

J. da Graça, N. Duran-Vila, T. Gottwald, R. F. Lee, P. Moreno, L. Navarro, C. N. Roistacher, P. Barkley (Chairperson).

Approved by unanimous consent at the business meeting of the XVth Conference of the IOCV on November 13th, 2001 at Paphos, Cyprus .

Amended at the 18th Conference of IOCV in São Paulo, Brazil as proposed by the board to update election procedures. Approved unanimously by those present at the business meeting on November 11, 2010.

Amended at the 19th Conference of IOCV in Krueger National Park, Mpumalanga, South Africa as proposed by the board to update election procedures to included electronic elections and the ability of IOCV Fellows to hold elective offices. Approved unanimously by those present at the business meeting on August 1, 2013.

Amended by vote of delegates present online at the XXII IOCV Business meeting on February 15, 2023 (GMT).


The following includes all the changes made above and represent the current Bylaws of IOCV:






Section 1.

The name of this organization shall be the INTERNATIONAL ORGANIZATION OF CITRUS VIROLOGISTS, designated by the letters IOCV and herein after referred to as IOCV or as the Organization.

Section 2.

The IOCV shall be a non-profit corporation, initially registered in California and conforming to state law. The activities of IOCV shall be limited to its stated objectives and it shall be governed by a Board of Directors. If IOCV is dissolved any assets shall go to the educational institutions approved at the last business session of the Organization.




Section 1.

The objectives of this Organization shall be: i) To promote cooperative international study of citrus diseases caused by viruses and other graft-transmissible agents and ii) dissemination of knowledge concerning their identity and relationships, effects and importance, means of spread, control and/or prevention.

To encourage personal contacts and the exchange of information by sponsorship of official IOCV Conferences and publication of proceedings of these conferences. To prepare and distribute other material useful in the study of graft-transmissible diseases of citrus.

To develop mutual understanding among individuals, institutions and agencies concerned with citrus production and to encourage their participation in and support of research on graft-transmissible diseases of citrus.




Section 1.

Membership in this Organization shall be of two classes, (1) Active and (2) Fellows.

Section 2.

Any person engaged in research in citriculture, graft-transmissible diseases or plant protection or in nursery operations, fruit production, processing and marketing related to citrus is eligible for active membership. All active members shall pay the established membership dues and additionally, when attending international conferences of the Organization shall be required to pay the registration fees.

Section 3.

The Organization at its regular conferences or during official pre- or post-conference tours may grant the honor of Fellow of the IOCV for lifetime achievement to persons who have contributed significantly to the growth, welfare, functions or activities of IOCV including service to the organization, sustained scientific contributions and otherwise furthering the objectives of IOCV. The Board of Directors and previous awardees shall constitute a committee to consider the granting of Fellowships. Members of IOCV may submit to the Chairperson names and supporting documents or information on the persons to be considered for this honor. Nomination of fellows of the IOCV shall be approved at a regularly convened business session of the Organization by a majority of the delegates. Fellows shall be exempt from payment of regular dues but if in attendance at conferences shall pay the established registration fees. Fellows may serve on committees where because of their interest and qualifications they can contribute to aims and activities of IOCV.



Section 1.

Membership dues shall be paid by active members for each 3-year interval between international conferences. Dues can be determined as needed by a majority vote at the IOCV business meeting during the IOCV Conference.

Section 2.

Members who become delinquent in payment of dues shall be dropped from membership if dues are not paid within six (6) months after notice of delinquency has been sent to them by the secretary of IOCV.

Section 3.

The amount of the conference registration fee for both participating members and accompanying persons shall be determined by the local conference organizing committees after consultation with the Chairperson of IOCV.




Section 1.

Officers of IOCV shall consist of 1) a Chairperson, 2) a Chairperson-elect, 3) a Secretary, 4) a Treasurer and 5) members of an Advisory Council. Since the Chairperson-elect normally will succeed to the office of Chairperson of IOCV, regular elections will call for only the nomination and election of a Chairperson-elect once in three (3) years. The offices of secretary and treasurer will be proposed by the incoming Chairperson of IOCV at the beginning of their term of office and voted at the business meeting for the following term. The Advisory Council shall consist of the Chairperson-elect who shall serve as presiding officer of this council, the immediate Past-Chairperson of IOCV, and one member of IOCV appointed by the Chairperson of IOCV subsequent to taking office. Normally, the elected and appointed officials shall take office at the end of a regularly scheduled conference and serve until adjournment of the next conference.

Section 2.

The Board of Directors of IOCV shall consist of the officers of the organization.

Section 3.

Committees shall be appointed by the Chairperson of IOCV as deemed necessary by them and they shall appoint the Chairperson of the respective committees. The incoming Chairperson shall appoint at least an Awards Committee and a Conference Location Committee.




Section 1.

Prior to the opening day of the forthcoming international conference the Secretary shall prepare and send to each member a nomination ballot. Members may place on the ballot the name of one (1) person whom they wish to nominate as a candidate for the office of Chairperson-Elect. The nomination ballot shall be sealed in an envelope or sent back to the Secretary via the appropriate electronic protocol. For paper ballots, the envelope containing the nomination ballot should be placed in a mailing envelope which must contain the name and address of the voting member. It is then to be forwarded to the Secretary of IOCV to reach them by a date specified on the nomination ballot. Upon receipt of the nomination ballots, the Secretary will check the voting eligibility of the sender from the return address, remove the sealed ballot envelope and file them. The mailing envelopes shall be discarded. For electronic ballots, an appropriate and secure electronic voting system shall be used. The electronic ballot should contain the names and qualifications of the candidates.

At the expiration of the specified time for receipt of ballots the Secretary in company of two (2) other members of IOCV appointed by the Chairperson of IOCV shall tabulate the nomination ballots or view the nomination tally in the electronic system. The persons receiving, the two (2) highest number of nomination votes shall then become candidates for office of Chairperson-elect. In case a nominated candidate is unavailable or has expressed unwillingness to become a candidate, their name shall be replaced by that of the person receiving the next highest number of nomination votes. If any tie exists in the nomination process to select the top two candidates a runoff election will occur.

Section 2.

A. Non-Electronic Election. The Secretary shall have ballots containing in alphabetical order the names of the two (2) persons nominated as described above to be candidates for the office of Chairperson-elect. Prior to the opening of the forthcoming international conference the Secretary shall send the election ballot to each member in good standing. After marking the election ballot, it shall be sent as instructed to reach the Secretary not later than two (2) weeks before the opening of the next international conference. They shall check voting eligibility, discard mailing envelope and file the unopened ballot envelopes. They shall bring these to the site of the conference or else provide that they are delivered to the Chairperson of IOCV by the opening day of the conference. At least forty-eight (48) hours before the official banquet, the delegates attending the conference will be allowed to deliver to the Secretary or acting person their ballot. Only those delegates that were active members when the election process started will have the right to vote.

B. Electronic Election. Prior to the opening of the forthcoming international conference the Secretary shall send the election ballot to each member in good standing. Only those delegates that were active members when the election process started will have the right to vote. After marking the election ballot, it shall be sent as instructed to reach the Secretary not later than two (2) weeks before the opening of the next international conference. The Secretary shall inform the Chairperson of IOCV at the conference or any other appropriate way for the result of the electronic election.

Section 3.

At least twenty-four (24) hours before the official announcement, the Chairperson of IOCV shall appoint a ballot-counting committee of four (4) including the Secretary or a person delegated to act in that capacity in case the official Secretary is not in attendance.

Section 4.

Before the official announcement the ballot-counting committee shall open and tabulate the ballots or view the electronic results and inform only the current Chairperson of the election results. In case of the absence of the Chairperson of IOCV, the current Chairperson-elect or the appointed presiding officer shall receive the election report.

Section 5.

Upon the occasion of the official announcement the presiding Chairperson shall announce the election results.

Section 6.

In case the office of Chairperson of IOCV becomes vacant for any reason, the current Chairperson-elect shall succeed automatically to the office of Chairperson. Should the office of Chairperson-elect become vacant for this or any other reason, the Chairperson will call for a special election by regular election procedures if time permits. If the time frame does not coincide with the conference, the Secretary shall proceed with the election process described in Sections 1 and 2. The Chairperson of IOCV shall appoint a ballot- counting committee of four (4) IOCV members including the Secretary. The ballot-counting committee shall open and tabulate the ballots and inform only the current Chairperson of the election results. The results will then be announced by the Chairperson to members by mail.

Section 7.

If, because of a vacancy, the Chairperson-elect succeeds to the office of Chairperson six (6) months or more before the end of the normal 3-year term they shall relinquish this office at adjournment of the conference, which follows. The interim Chairperson-elect will then become Chairperson of IOCV to serve through the next regular conference. Otherwise both officers shall remain in their respective offices for another term.

Section 8.

Should the office of Secretary or Treasurer become vacated the current Chairperson of IOCV may appoint a new Secretary or Treasurer to serve the unexpired term of office. The appointment of the Treasurer however should be made only after consultation with the Advisory Council.





The duties of the Chairperson shall be to direct the affairs of the Organization during their term of office by:

a) Proposing to the assembly the persons that will serve as Secretary and Treasurer for their term in office.

b) Appointing the necessary committees and a Chairperson of each committee.

c) Serving ex-officio with each committee, offering their advice, counsel, and suggestions for efficient and productive accomplishments toward the aims of IOCV.

d) Working with and assisting the Committee for Organization of the Conference that will be held during his/her tenure of office.

e) Elaborating in cooperation with the Secretary at least one newsletter per year informing the IOCV members on the activities related to the aims of the organization.

f) Working with the Immediate Past-Chairperson and the Chairperson of the Editorial and Publications Committee in publication of the proceedings of the last-held conference.

g) Informing the Secretary regarding announcements and information to be sent to the members of IOCV.

h) Taking the necessary action to initiate programs or activities, which the Organization requests by majority vote at regular business sessions.

i) Proposing to the general assembly acceptance of donations for prizes or other activities related to the aims of the organization. The Chairperson will watch over the accomplishment of the will of the donor.

j) Publicizing newsworthy activities and forthcoming international conference of IOCV in selected Scientific and Trade Journals.

k) Undertaking actions to develop agreements adopted at the general assembly.

l) Conducting other necessary business.


The duties of the Chairperson-elect shall be:

To assist the Chairperson when called upon in the promotion of the programs and projects of IOCV and to serve as the presiding officer of the Advisory Council. In case of resignation or incapacitation of the Chairperson of IOCV, the Chairperson-elect shall automatically assume the office of the Chairperson.

Section 3. SECRETARY.

The duties of the Secretary shall be:

a) To receive membership applications, maintain a mailing list of all members and to send out necessary information regarding payment of dues, et cetera.

b) To receive membership dues and other monies of the Organization, which shall be transferred to the Treasurer.

c) To prepare under the supervision of the Chairperson and distribute all official announcements including the newsletters.

d) To prepare and distribute nomination and election ballots, assemble and handle returned ballots as specified in Article VI of these Bylaws.

e) To perform other duties as may be requested by the Chairperson or by the general assembly.

f) To provide information requested by the members on matters related to the IOCV organization or activities.

Section 4. TREASURER.

The duties of the treasurer shall be:

a) To receive membership dues and other monies of the organization directly through the Secretary and deposit them in one or more bank accounts in the name of International Organization of Citrus Virologists.

b) To sign checks for necessary and legitimate expenses of the Organization, keep accurate and up-to-date accounting records, and prepare a financial statement for presentation at the regular business sessions of conferences and for distribution to all members in the first newsletter after the close of each conference.

c) To maintain liaison with publisher of IOCV proceedings or other official documents to ensure prompt fulfillment of orders for these materials.

d) To arrange for themself suitable bonding, the cost of which is to be borne by the Organization.

e) To keep separate accounts of the various funds that the organization may have and report the usage and balance of them at each of the IOCV conferences.


The Advisory Council shall be available to the Chairperson of IOCV for consultation regarding administrative policies, procedures, and other activities of IOCV. They may initiate or receive from members, suggestions related to activities or programs of IOCV and make recommendations to the Chairperson of IOCV. It will rest with the Chairperson of IOCV to determine what matters need to be submitted to the membership before action is taken. The Advisory Council shall have no voting power.




Section 1.

Unless there are reasons to do otherwise, official conferences of IOCV shall be held at three (3) year intervals. A Conference Location Committee formed by the Chairperson, the Chairperson-elect and four members appointed by the incoming Chairperson will search for and decide the location of the IOCV conference following next one. This committee will be co-chaired by the Chairperson and the Chairperson-elect. During their term of office members of the Conference Location Committee will contact IOCV members or other scientists involved in citrus from different countries and encourage them to organize the Conference following the next one. Offers from candidate countries should include a preliminary program of activities, possible calendar and a tentative budget. During the next conference the committee shall evaluate the different offers presented, inquiring if necessary for additional information, and will decide which location will be selected for the following conference. During the business meeting the Chairperson of the committee will inform the general assembly of the location selected and the reasons for this choice. If for unforeseen reasons the selected country could not organize the conference, an alternative site shall be decided by the Chairperson, Chairperson-elect and the previous conference location committee after consideration of (1) invitations received from sponsoring countries or institutions, (2) geographic location, (3) sites of prior conferences, and (4) other contributing factors.

Section 2.

English shall be the official language for published proceedings and other publications of the Organization. At conferences of IOCV, papers may be read in other languages if simultaneous translation into English can be provided. The Organization may grant permission to reprint its official publication in languages other than English.

Section 3.

The proceedings of IOCV conferences shall be published electronically in the Journal of Citrus Pathology. The guidelines for authors shall be decided by the Board of Directors.

Section 4.

The incoming Chairperson, after taking office at the conference meeting, shall appoint the editor(s) of the proceedings of the conference.




Section 1.

An award may be given to one or more IOCV members for outstanding contribution in the field of citrus graft transmissible diseases, according to the will of James M. and Adeline H. Wallace, who provided a five thousand dollars ($ 5000.00) bequest for this purpose.

An award may be given to one or more IOCV members for outstanding research contribution toward the improvement of pathogen-free citrus germplasm resources, at the request of the family of David J. Gumpf who provided a five thousand dollars ($ 5000.00) bequest for this purpose.

An award may be given to one or more IOCV members for an outstanding virology or pathology paper or travel support, at the request of the family of Stephen and Rosalee Garnsey who provided a bequest, in addition to member donations.

Awards may be given to one or more IOCV members for travel support to an IOCV conference, in honor of R.E. Schwartz.

The rules for these awards shall be:

a) An Awards Committee will be composed of the acting IOCV Chairperson and four (4) members appointed by the Chairperson, one (1) of them selected among the authors of a previous Award paper if available, and at least two (2) among the delegates attending the past conference. The names of the committee members shall be made public when the award will be announced.

b) The award should never exceed one thousand dollars ($ 1000). This amount shall be given to the author responsible for the paper, who may share it with co-authors. An engraved plaque will be provided to each author.

c) If the awards committee decides that two (2) papers are deserving of prizes they may award prizes to authors of both, equally dividing the available cash between the authors of the two papers.

d) Papers to be considered for the award shall be:

- Original work published in the Journal of Citrus Pathology either as a stand-alone paper or presented in the previous IOCV conference and published as a full paper.

- At least one of the authors responsible for the work must be a current member of the IOCV, i.e. dues are paid up.

e) It is not mandatory that an award be given on the occasion of every IOCV conference. The award should be given only if a significant and appropriate paper can be agreed upon by the awards committee. Any income not used for these awards shall go into the treasury of IOCV for use as agreed upon by the Board of Directors.

f) If any research paper on which a member of the Awards Committee is involved as an author comes under consideration for a prize, such person shall resign from the committee and the Chairperson shall appoint another person to the committee.

g) The awardees should be selected by the Awards Committee before the next conference and the prize/s shall be announced by the Chairperson in an IOCV email or newsletter, at the IOCV conference banquet, or at the conclusion of an online conference. If attendance at the conference of any author of the winning paper is not guaranteed, the awardees can be confidentially notified by the Chairperson that they are to be honored to encourage individual efforts to attend.




Section 1.

Proposals for Amendment(s) of these Bylaws, if signed by six (6) members of IOCV may be submitted to the Chairperson of IOCV at any time. Normally, the Chairperson shall present any such proposals to the members in attendance at a regularly convened business session of the Organization. If two-thirds of these members vote in favor of an amendment it shall be adopted. Should the need for amendments of these Bylaws be of such urgency as to require action before a regular business session can be convened, the Chairperson of IOCV is authorized to instruct the Secretary to proceed as necessary to present the proposed change(s) to the membership by mail for their acceptance or rejection.


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